যুদ্ধবাজ বৌদ্ধকাহন


Buddhist_Warfare005অনুবাদ করার সময় না থাকায় সরাসরি উল্লেখ করছি ইংরেজি রেফারেন্সসহ। বিশেষ করে বৌদ্ধদের দার্শনিক সত্তার দ্রুত বদলে তাদের যুদ্ধবাজ হয়ে উঠতে বাধ্য করেছিলো। ভারত উপমহাদেশের প্রেক্ষিতে যদিও অগসবার্গের সন্ধির মত কোনো সন্ধি ছিলো না । যেখানে বলা হয়েছে রাজার ধর্মই হবে প্রজার ধর্ম। তারপরেও শেষ পর্যন্ত দেখা গেছে ভারতবর্ষে ঐ ধর্মই শেষ পর্যন্ত টিকে গেছে যে ধর্ম রাজ পৃষ্ঠপোষকতা পেয়েছে। বিশেষ করে এই পৃষ্ঠপোষকতার মানে এই নয় যে সমান্তরালে অন্য ধর্মাবলম্বীদের টিকে থাকতে দেয়া। এখানে সেন যুগের বাংলা এর উপযুক্ত উদাহরণ হতে পারে। অন্যদিকে শশাঙ্কের বৌদ্ধদলনের কথা খোদ হিউয়েন সাং পর্যন্ত বলে গেছেন। তবে বেশিরভাগ বৌদ্ধ পণ্ডিত ভারতের ইতিহাস লিখে গেছেন বলে সেখান থেকে বৌদ্ধ শাসকদের তাণ্ডব পারতপক্ষে বাদ পড়ে গেছে। আর সেখানে চণ্ডাশোক থেকে ধম্মাশোকে রূপান্তরের মধ্য দিয়ে সম্রাট অশোক অভিধায় বর্ণিত হয়েছে বৌদ্ধ কীর্তন। সবমিলিয়ে পুরো স্রোতের বিপরীতে গিয়ে লেখা অন্যরকম একটি বই এই Buddhist Warfare। পোস্টের হাইপার লিংক থেকে ডাউনলোড করে পড়ে নিন আগ্রহীরা। কিছু অংশ শেয়ার করছি রেফারেন্সসহ।

In Buddhisms, as in every religious tradition, warfare is related to religion in several different ways. Some wars are conducted to defend a Buddhist community against enemies from a different faith. In other instances, it is two different schools of Buddhists that clash with each other over which version of the faith is valid and which community is stronger. In yet other instances, Buddhist ideas and monastic leaders have lent their legitimacy to wars that otherwise might have been characterized simply as wars of defense, conquest, or vengeance. In Sri Lanka, for instance, members of the Buddhist political party Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) were alleged to have blurred the lines between sacred duty and murder; they traced their justifi cations back to the Sinhalese mythohistorical chronicle called the Mahāvaṃsa. In this work, the Buddhist king Dutthagamani wages a sacred war against foreign invaders led by Tamil king Eıạ̄ ra in the second century BCE. In the contemporary Buddhists’ view, the killing of Tamil heathens did not constitute murder because Tamil warriors were neither meritorious nor, more important, Buddhist. [1]

Chinese Buddhist revolts during the sixth century framed the fi ght as between the Buddha and his legendary nemesis Māra, the god of desire and illusion. Under the leadership of Faqing, Chinese Buddhist monks murdered barbarians as part of the larger cosmic battle against Māra. In some accounts, Faqing is labeled as the messianic fi gure Maitreya.[2] There are also military activities relating to the millenarian accounts of Buddhism, which often revolve around the buddha-to-be, Maitreya (Pāli: Metteya). Between 1699 and 1959, in eight revolts against Siamese and Thai governments, Buddhist revolutionaries held to a belief in imminent catastrophes that were to be followed by material bliss. Half of these revolts centered on the coming of Maitreya (Thai:Si Ariya). [3]

Buddhist messianic violence persists in contemporary times, with the latest violent outbreak occurring in Japan. In 1995, Asahara Shōkō’s Aum Shinrikyō  unleashed Sarin nerve gas into the Tokyo subway, killing a dozen people and injuring many more. Part of Aum Shinrikyō’s ideology is based on the Lotus Sūtra, one of the most popular and infl uential sūtras (scriptures) in Mahāyāna Buddhism. Buddhist battles also have occurred due to ideological differences between Buddhist traditions. This is especially evident in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, whose history includes battles between different schools of Buddhist thoughtover issues of political and ideological supremacy. Derek Maher’s chapter in this book, “Sacralized Warfare: The Fifth Dalai Lama and the Discourse of Religious Violence,” explores one of these moments. Examples may also be found in other Buddhist traditions of wars that were fought in order to spread
Buddhist beliefs.

The Indian Kālacakratantra describes an eschatological war in which the army of the bodhisattva king of Shambhala conquers and annihilates Muslim forces and reestablishes Buddhism. [4] And in Japan, Zen became a mechanism of the state and a motive to fi ght—to convert the heathens. Japanese Buddhist military objectives in the early 1900s were to kill unbelievers and to convert their state to Buddhism. In accordance with Mahāyāna principles, people who were not enlightened would be reborn; therefore, there was no true destruction of life. Once the state became Buddhist, unbelievers would be reborn in a Buddhist country. Brian Victoria writes that, in this context of Buddhist war, murder becomes a form of upāya (skillful means), since sentient beings are ultimately saved. [5] When Buddhist states have attempted to preserve Buddhist  principles and values, popular forms of Buddhist nationalism and fundamentalism have been simultaneously elicited. [6]

[1].  Michael Jerryson, “Militarizing Buddhism: Violence in Southern Thailand,” in this volume.

[2]. Paul Demiéville, “Buddhism and War,” in this volume.

[3]. Chatthip Nartsupha, “The Ideology of ‘Holy Men’ Revolts in North East Thailand,” in History and Peasant Consciousness in Southeast Asia, ed. Andrew Turton and Shigeru Tanabe (Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 1984), 123.

[4].  Lambert Schmithausen, “Aspects of the Buddhist Attitude towards War,” in Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History, ed. E. M. Houben and K. R. Van Kooij (Leiden: Brill, 1999), 58.

[5].   Brian Victoria, Zen at War, 2nd ed. (Boulder, Colo.: Rowman & Littlefi eld, 2006), 88, 119.

[6].   For a survey of fundamentalism in Theravāda Buddhism, see Donald Swearer, “Fundamentalist Movements in Theravada Buddhism,” in Fundamentalisms Observed, ed. Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 628–690.

 

বইয়ের ডাউনলোড লিংক ।

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2 thoughts on “যুদ্ধবাজ বৌদ্ধকাহন”

  1. আপনার লেখাটা পড়ে ভীষণ ভাল লেগেছে । নতুন অনেক তথ্য জানতে পারলাম । আপনার লেখাটা পড়ে আমার Buddhist Warfare বইটা পড়ার ইচ্ছা জাগচ্ছে । Michael Jerryson এবং Mark Juergensmeye লেখা বই Buddhist Warfare আপনার লিংক হতে ডাইনলোড করতে পারছি না । দয়া করে মিঢিয়া ফায়ারের মাধ্যমে শেয়ার করে দিন না । আপনাকে ধন্যবাদ ।

    1. আপনার মন্তব্যের জন্য ধন্যবাদ জনাব শাহাদত। পোস্টের নিচে দেওয়া লিংকে শুধু ক্লিক করেন। ডাউনলোড হয় আরো দৌড়ায়। কোনো টেনশন নিয়েন না। কোপাইয়া ডাউনলোডান তারপর ধুমাইয়া পড়েন।

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